• News

Water bodies turn home for mosquitoes

...Hindu, February 24, 2012

Hussainsagar can be cleaned up: OU professor

...Hindu, February 10, 2012

Husain Sagar, more than just a lake

...Times of India, February 15, 2012

STP leaves Banjara lake on deathbed

...Times of India, January 25, 2012


Citizens Initiative for saving water bodies in Hyderabad


Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Sewage Treatment Plant is a facility designed to receive the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and to remove materials that damage water quality and compromise public health and safety when discharged into water receiving systems. The Principal objective of waste water treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment.


Three basic purpose of Water Treatment Plant are as follows:
I. To produce water that is safe for human consumption
II. To produce water that is appealing to the consumer
III. To produce water - using facilities which can be constructed and operated at a reasonable cost

In India, reuse and recycling of treated sewage is considered important on account of two advantages (1) Reduction of pollution in receiving water bodies and (2) Reduction in fresh water requirement for various uses. Pre-treatment

Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw sewage before they damage or clog the pumps and sewage lines of primary treatment clarifiers (trash, tree limbs, leaves, branches etc.).


Main article: Sieve
The influent sewage water passes through a bar screen to remove all large objects like cans, rags, sticks, plastic packets etc. carried in the sewage stream. This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants; a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill, or incinerated. Bar screens or mesh screens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal. If gross solids are not removed, they become entrained in pipes and moving parts of the treatment plant, and can cause substantial damage and inefficiency in the process.

Grit removal

Pre-treatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber, where the velocity of the incoming sewage is adjusted to allow the settlement of sand, grit, stones, and broken glass. These particles are removed because they may damage pumps and other equipment. For small sanitary sewer systems, the grit chambers may not be necessary, but grit removal is desirable at larger plants. Grit chambers come in 3 types: horizontal grit chambers, aerated grit chambers and vortex grit chambers.

Flow equalization

Clarifiers and mechanized secondary treatment are more efficient under uniform flow conditions. Equalization basins may be used for temporary storage of diurnal or wet-weather flow peaks. Basins provide a place to temporarily hold incoming sewage during plant maintenance and a means of diluting and distributing batch discharges of toxic or high-strength waste which might otherwise inhibit biological secondary treatment (including portable toilet waste, vehicle holding tanks, and septic tank pumpers). Flow equalization basins require variable discharge control, typically include provisions for bypass and cleaning, and may also include aerators. Cleaning may be easier if the basin is downstream of screening and grit removal.

Fat and grease removal

In some larger plants, fat and grease are removed by passing the sewage through a small tank where skimmers collect the fat floating on the surface. Air blowers in the base of the tank may also be used to help recover the fat as froth. Many plants, however, use primary clarifiers with mechanical surface skimmers for fat and grease removal.

Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.
1. Primary treatment
2. Secondary treatment
3. Tertiary treatment

Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment.

Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration, removal of levels of elements like phosphorous, Nitrogen etc.,) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

STP capacity is measured in terms of MLD. MLD means million litres per day. i.e., if we see 1MLD STP that means that STP has the capacity to process 1 million litre of water per day.